Python Requests Login Session

Amazon Web Services, or AWS for short, is a set of cloud APIs and computational services offered by Amazon. It does however require a. Python is easy compared to other programming languages, having far less verbose. By default only autonomous methods are cached (get, head, options). Getting Started with MySQL Python Connector – help you get started with MySQL Python connector by learning about the MySQL Python connector’s features and how to install it on your system. This is a complete Python programming tutorial (for both Python 2 and Python 3!). This post is about how to efficiently/correctly download files from URLs using Python. pyodbc implements the Python DB API 2. Once you've put together enough web scrapers, you start to feel like you can do it in your sleep. Delaware County Community College is the center of educational opportunity in Delaware and Chester counties in southeastern Pennsylvania. The server uses the hint to simplify the login flow either by prefilling the email field in the sign-in form or by selecting the appropriate multi-login session. I found "Python Requests" and it seemed to be a reasonable tool for my task, and I got started with it. Goes along really nicely with the autocomplete-python package to provide a full Python IDE experience in Atom. On first request with login parameters server responses a session id. Designed as a quick reference cheat sheet providing a high level overview of the typical commands a third-party pen test company would run when performing a manual infrastructure penetration test. The big problem is that the modem login can NOT be completed with a character there is an " Apply " button that must be "clicked" in order to complete the login. urllib3 brings many critical features that are missing from the Python standard libraries: Thread safety. 0 specification. It's very tricky depending on how the website handles the login process but what I did was that I used Charles which is a proxy application and listened to requests that my browser sent to the website's server while I was logging in manually. With Python you can also access and retrieve data from the internet like XML, HTML, JSON, etc. By continuing to use Pastebin, you agree to our use of cookies as described in the Cookies Policy. SQLAlchemy is a library that facilitates the communication between Python programs and databases. 0 with Python 2. Pythonic HTML Parsing for Humans™. Brief: This guide shows you how to set up Python environment on Linux and other Unix-like systems. Better looking with a python tool HTTPie. You'll often need to perform requests as a particular user. headers dictionary ("dictionary-like object") and the request data using the request. render_template, request, session, abort import os from sqlalchemy. Custom Login using Request Loader¶ Sometimes you want to login users without using cookies, such as using header values or an api key passed as a query argument. 0 specification (PEP-249). 4 series, is available here. requests 有一种用法是,通过一个 requests. This token is then what vCloud is expecting for all requests in the session. Please see our Python documentation for authentication instructions. On first request with login parameters server responses a session id. This is a living, breathing guide. NC State Shibboleth Login - Stale Request. session[username] = str which python module did. Covering the basics. Asynchronous Python HTTP Requests for Humans. 7 are currently supported. I have very little experience with web design and. Protect your users and services from password leaks. Create Session Login Token. Installing Requests pip install requests. This service can be either a web service or an AWS Lambda function. session module for this purpose. This little tip is more for me than anything as I love to use python and love to use python requests. While in this example we're only using an integer as the value, the session attribute acts as a dictionary, allowing string keys and almost arbitrary Python objects as values. HUE uses stock auth form. All of the file contents is received using the response. This view will show a welcome message by addressing the logged-in user. Requestsは、pipでインストールできる。 % pip install requests. 0 documentation 使っている中で、RequestのCookieの使い方について迷ったことがあったため、…. fetch method. In Python, the most common library for making requests and working with APIs is the requests library. Session taken from open source projects. (ISO8583 flavours - 1 day :) ). 用生产者消费模型爬取智联招聘python岗位信息. Visit our Github page to see or participate in PTVS development. method should be a string that indicates the HTTP request method that will be used (e. StorageCARE Customer Center ACCOUNT LOGIN. Hi, I have a html pageand i want to get the value of session variable in html page. It has the input fields to get the user login details. Creating sessions doesn’t send any requests. The Alexa Skills Kit enables you to give Alexa new abilities by building a cloud-based service. It abstracts the complexities of making requests behind a beautiful, simple API so that you can focus on interacting with services and consuming data in your application. This results in major speed benefits when processing large SOAP responses. HUE uses stock auth form. 357 Replica Review! - CO2 BB Revolver from Umarex USA, Air guns, Airgun Forum. Open source software is made better when users can easily contribute code and documentation to fix bugs and add features. 7, and with versions 3. The use_pure mysql. I have figured out how to submit data to a login form on a website and retrieve the session key, but I can't see an obvious way to use. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. Some of our examples use nginx server. You should receive an email shortly after submitting your request. Website login using requests library in Python - Duration: 12:31. Your POST request was accepted by the server (200 OK) but since no login information was posted, the body will most likely tell you something like "login incorrect, please try again". I am writing a script to log in to some webpage. The argument callback needs at least one more indent. Let us try to look at another example where sessions are used: a password solution. We will be using the urllib library to make GET requests and the BeautifulSoup library to parse the contents. 0 endpoint supports web server applications that use languages and frameworks such as PHP, Java, Python, Ruby, and ASP. 10 hours ago · First, let's find your account. If you need a quick web server running and you don't want to mess with setting up apache or something similar, then Python can help. The /reports Endpoint. To access cookies of this session simply use. The Auth0 Login Box. You can specify what templates to use by giving a python dictionary as a third parameter in the urlpattern, with ‘template_name’ as key and the location of the template as the value. Using Python (cherryPy) to Set HttpOnly. It's an opinionated solution but by its existence it demonstrates how it works so you can copy and modify it. Python REST API Authentication with JSON Web Tokens In this post we’ll show you how to set up authentication for your Python REST API using JSON Web Tokens. (CkPython) HTTP Authentication (Basic, NTLM, Digest, Negotiate/Kerberos) Demonstrates how to use HTTP authentication. Codds's 1970 paper "A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks. Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1. To reset your password, enter your email address in the box below and click "Reset Password". I am trying to (1) log into a website with requests, then (2) update the values of six text fields on a login-restricted subpage. Session对象也可以直接使用上面的所有方法哟。 小结. get (REQUEST - URL) print (r. Then we declare s as a requests. If you are a new customer, register now for access to product evaluations and purchasing capabilities. The response to this request lists the API versions that the. cgi (marked with red arrow below) and its parameters. 5 APS has an ability to behave as a standalone proxy server and authenticate http clients at web servers using NTLM method. 1BestCsharp blog 4,125,389 views. NET authentication. It is useful for accessing web sites that require small pieces of data - cookies - to be set on the client machine by an HTTP response from a web server, and then returned to the server in later HTTP requests. session 上使用 Python 字符串作为字典的键,这比使用 Session def login (request): m = Member. Create Session Login Token. However, since there is still a bit of mystery. the argument url shouldn't have a space on the right side of the equals. StorageCARE Customer Center ACCOUNT LOGIN. Can't login to website using Python [requests, roboBrowser] I've been looking around for a week now. treq - Python requests like API built on top of Twisted's HTTP client. Python strongly encourages community involvement in improving the software. Session은 위와 같은 방식으로 만들 수 있습니다. They can also share Stories with Open Graph. A Web framework is a collection of packages or modules which allow developers to write Web applications (see WebApplications) or services without having to handle such low-level details as protocols, sockets or process/thread management. #S3 using python-requests. Use the POST method and. Most options that do not accept arguments are boolean options, so named because their state can be captured with a yes-or-no (“boolean”) variable. session['my_car'] = 'mini' If you're updating some information within session data, then Django will not recognise that you've made a change to the session and save the data (for example, if you were to change "wheels" data inside your "my_car" data, as shown. ASP Intro ASP Syntax ASP Variables ASP Procedures ASP Conditionals ASP Looping ASP Forms ASP Cookies ASP Session ASP Application ASP #include ASP Global. OData (Open Data Protocol) is an ISO/IEC approved, OASIS standard that defines a set of best practices for building and consuming RESTful APIs. This skills-based specialization is intended for learners who have a basic python or programming background, and want to apply statistical, machine learning, information visualization, text analysis, and social network analysis techniques through popular. Then we declare s as a requests. jwt_required ( realm=None ) [source] ¶ View decorator that requires a valid JWT token to be present in the request. Requests is one of the most downloaded Python packages of all time, pulling in over 11,000,000 downloads every month. Session()访问+session序列化 12-23 阅读数 551 即解决了request无法直接script,模拟鼠标操作,又解决了selenium无Session难以维持会话的问题。. 1 RFC 2616 Fielding, et al. I'm developing a Web Crawler in Python 3. In the previous chapter, we have seen scraping dynamic websites. That's where Full Stack Python comes in. 23 through 5. There exists a much better and easier to use HTTP client interface called Python Requests. See Work with OAuth 2. Couchbase 2. This two-part course is designed to help students with very little or no computing background learn the basics of building simple interactive applications. You'll receive an email and in-site notification as soon as respond. SSL and Synchronous Requests (scroll down for async requests) In Python, the main way in which one makes a web request is via the requests library, like so:. If you need to go deeper (or do forms, uploads, etc. This means that web servers can be made very efficient and can serve large amounts of traffic very quickly. $ sudo service nginx start We run nginx web server on localhost. cookies to support dict operations. The application then contacts Google with the login data and requests access to a specified Google Data API. Join today to get access to thousands of courses. Complete the steps described in the rest of this page to create a simple Python command-line application that makes requests to the Google Sheets API. If you don't set any session data, it won't send a session cookie (unless SESSION_SAVE_EVERY_REQUEST is set to True). Brief: This guide shows you how to set up Python environment on Linux and other Unix-like systems. Learn more about how to make Python better for everyone. Report abuse. What Are RESTful Web Services? RESTful web services are built to work best on the Web. All of the file contents is received using the response. The SOAP specifications are unfortunately really vague and leave a lot of things open for interpretation. In this video, I will show you how to handle a web-login using requests module ( pip install requests). For example, you need to authenticate when you are accessing your savings account details using netbanking. I will be using the god-send library requests for it. If you’ve ever tried to set up a Python development environment in Windows, you know how challenging it can be. Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1. It is intended to be utilized by people to interface with the language. Examples of the Complete Version 4 Signing Process (Python) This section shows example programs written in Python that illustrate how to work with Signature Version 4 in AWS. Write your code in this editor and press "Run" button to execute it. Here’s a sample session using the ftplib module:. What can Requests do?. Your current session is about to expire. Your session will expire in minutes. It usually requires a reasonable understanding of HTML and knowing the basic workings of an HTTP web server (in terms of the types of requests that are made back and forth from you to the target server. Usually POST and PATCH are accompanied by data. The x-amz-security-token header is added with the session token. The next major release, Django 2. Redistribution Prohibited. The open-source Anaconda Distribution is the easiest way to perform Python/R data science and machine learning on Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X. Here is the code broken down into sections in accordance to the overview at the top: Step 1. HTTPBasicAuth(). It was later updated and eventually evolved into a longer script that I used for demonstrations. If you’re a Python programmer, the Python APIs are much simpler to work with than command-line tools or the REST API. It provides the SimpleCookie class, which you can initialize using the actual HTTP_COOKIE string sent to your script. Update: slides of a talk I gave at the London Python Meetup on this: Talk slides: Making 100 million HTTP requests with Python aiohttp. Use Python and boto3 library to create powerful scripts to eliminate manual effort and make operations easier!. The requests library is the de facto standard for making HTTP requests in Python. Now your session contains cookies provided by login form. EDIT: Fixed broken code in constructor. 7 and python 3; At the moment only S3 is supported. Email or phone. You'll learn how to create a login system using Python, Flask, and Flask-PyMongo in this video. You have come to the right place to learn everything you need to create, deploy and operate Python-powered applications. This callback should behave the same as your user_loader callback, except that it accepts the Flask request instead of a. StorageCARE Customer Center ACCOUNT LOGIN. This token is then what vCloud is expecting for all requests in the session. Learn Python online: Python tutorials for developers of all skill levels, Python books and courses, Python news, code examples, articles, and more. The request function under the urllib2 class accepts both url and parameter. The following steps are for adding Facebook Login to your iOS Objective-C project. Online Python Compiler, Online Python Editor, Online Python IDE, Online Python REPL, Online Python Coding, Online Python Interpreter, Execute Python Online, Run Python Online, Compile Python Online, Online Python Debugger, Execute Python Online, Online Python Code, Build Python apps, Host Python apps, Share Python code. 直接在 request. After both ends of a TCP/IP socket are connected, communication is bi-directional. 従来、Pythonドキュメントの日本語訳を https://docs. Python has a built in library called urllib2, it is bit complex and old style when compared to Requests. ) Understanding response messages, headers, the importance of cookies and session tokens and so on, are all somewhat advanced topics. Testing The Solution. All main parts of the OAuth 2. The requests library is the de facto standard for making HTTP requests in Python. py decorator around your Python function and grab relevant parameters off the url. It usually requires a reasonable understanding of HTML and knowing the basic workings of an HTTP web server (in terms of the types of requests that are made back and forth from you to the target server. Session 对象,来完成请求在上下文传递过程中的 Cookie 处理。 所以,你的代码可以修改如下: #coding=utf-8 import json import requests session = requests. Through urllib, you can access websites, download data, parse data, modify your headers, and do any GET and POST requests you might need to do. SourceForge is an Open Source community resource dedicated to helping open source projects be as successful as possible. In order to use Redis with Python you will need a Python Redis client. These libraries are not actively maintained. Python Programming tutorials from beginner to advanced on a massive variety of topics. This view will show a welcome message by addressing the logged-in user. If a variable with same name is defined inside the scope of function as well then it will print the value given inside the function only and not the global value. # This is detected as an update to the session, so session data is saved. Start here if you’re new to Django or Web application development. Once you’ve put together enough web scrapers, you start to feel like you can do it in your sleep. Class : Net::HTTP - Ruby 2. Most importantly, it resolves an issue that caused the interactive prompt to crash on OS X 10. Suppose you try to connect to a URL that will definitely never work, like this:. There are python packages available to work with Excel files that will run on any Python platform and that do not require either Windows or Excel to be used. I am trying to login into my email account through a website and run an action when I get a new email (I can't use IMAP, because it's a paid feature). In this example the /login URL is linked to two distinct callbacks, one for GET requests and another for POST requests. HUE uses stock auth form. They are extracted from open source Python projects. We use cookies for various purposes including analytics. Protect your users and services from password leaks. 18-rc5 allows local users to cause a denial of service (crash) via an SCTP socket with a certain SO_LINGER value, possibly related to the patch for CVE-2006-3745. You need to send the session id as a data to the post request. Finally, you publish your project to run as a serverless function in Azure. session 上使用 Python 字符串作为字典的键,这比使用 Session def login (request): m = Member. Some handy tools to make developing Python code in Atom even more enjoyable. We also use a header for the request and add a referer key to it for the same url. The Google OAuth 2. Any directive that you can include in a. Whether to save the session data on every request. The source for financial, economic, and alternative datasets, serving investment professionals. Python has two basic modes: script and interactive. Some basic support for the GreenHopper REST API also exists. pdf # import httplib, json, urllib, urllib2 Read more. cx_Oracle is a Python extension module that enables access to Oracle Database. Forrester notes that customers like Oracle databases’ capability to support many workloads including OLTP, IoT, microservices, and AI/ML. sqlmap is an open source penetration testing tool that automates the process of detecting and exploiting SQL injection flaws and taking over of database servers. Python Requests - 2. OData (Open Data Protocol) is an ISO/IEC approved, OASIS standard that defines a set of best practices for building and consuming RESTful APIs. Sometimes a test session might get stuck and there might be no easy way to figure out which test got stuck, for example if pytest was run in quiet mode (-q) or you don’t have access to the console output. Try not to stress if that looks bad to you. Before we jump in, just a quick request: think before you do, and be nice. For example, if you went to imdb. anyway I use emacs in. Now, that we were able to successfully login, we will perform the actual scraping from bitbucket dashboard page. For improved code portability, you can also use the Python standard libraries urllib, urllib2, or httplib to issue HTTP requests. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. When you create a custom skill, you create either an AWS Lambda function or a web service that can handle requests from Alexa. Its goal is to make CLI interaction with web services as human-friendly as possible. $ sudo service nginx start We run nginx web server on localhost. Some basic support for the GreenHopper REST API also exists. All main parts of the OAuth 2. asa ASP AJAX ASP e-mail ASP Examples ASP Reference. Request Data & Headers. There are a number of ways of supplying REST requests with authentication credentials. For more information on FTP (File Transfer Protocol), see Internet RFC 959. What is HTTP? HTTP is a set of protocols designed to enable communication between clients and servers. Doing HTTP requests anonymously with Python and Tor. This document details the protocol interface between the Alexa service and the web service or Lambda function you create. connect() connection argument determines which. Problem Statement : How to fill in the ellipsis in the code below ? [code]>>> import requests >>> login_data = {'formPosted':'1', 'login_email':'. 4 to Scrap some info from a Call Reporter platform developed in ASP. Learn Python online: Python tutorials for developers of all skill levels, Python books and courses, Python news, code examples, articles, and more. 7, and with versions 3. Pythonic HTML Parsing for Humans™. session, Django won't hit that database table. I have looked through many SO threads on how to create a session using the requests library, but none of the methods I tried actually log me in. session 上使用 Python 字符串作为字典的键,这比使用 Session def login (request): m = Member. 0 is highly recommended for use with MySQL Server 8. It provides the SimpleCookie class, which you can initialize using the actual HTTP_COOKIE string sent to your script. This view will show a welcome message by addressing the logged-in user. This is the screenshot of the welcome message. NET platforms was released in August 2019 and includes support for custom conflict resolution with 2-way merge. This guide will explain the process of making web requests in python using Requests package and its various features. Secure your websites and mobile apps. Penetration testing tools cheat sheet, a quick reference high level overview for typical penetration testing engagements. Request and Response JSON Reference. If authentication is successful, the original method and body will be retried by Apache httpd, preserving the state of the original request. The server should be able to handle cookie based sessions and also have basic auth, as these things are handled by python-requests' Session objects on the client side. This opens up as many doors for your programs as the internet opens up for you. This document details the protocol interface between the Alexa service and the web service or Lambda function you create. The idea is simple: Attempt to download a file from Kaggle but get blocked because you are not logged in. In this Django tutorial, you create a simple Django app with three pages that use a common base template. developerWorks blogs allow community members to share thoughts and expertise on topics that matter to them, and engage in conversations with each other. You can specify what templates to use by giving a python dictionary as a third parameter in the urlpattern, with ‘template_name’ as key and the location of the template as the value. The additional API and changes are minimal and strives to avoid surprises. You can use the urllib module to interact with any website in the world, no matter if you want to get data, post data or parse data. By default, your API uses RS256 as the algorithm for signing tokens. The cookielib module defines classes for automatic handling of HTTP cookies. Django in its 'out-of-the-box' state is set up to communicate with SQLite -- a lightweight relational database included with the Python distribution. I will be using the god-send library requests for it. It makes doing HTTP request nice and easy. get against the url we will be attempting to login to. Learn the latest GIS technology through free live training seminars, self-paced courses, or classes taught by Esri experts. get (username = request. Temporary. Notice that session variables are not passed individually to each new page, instead they are retrieved from the session we open at the beginning of each page (session_start()). We sent your lesson request to. You can specify what templates to use by giving a python dictionary as a third parameter in the urlpattern, with ‘template_name’ as key and the location of the template as the value. For your security, sessions expire after 20 minutes of inactivity. Post request will not take you to the home page. Copyright © 2002-2018 Bomgar Corporation. How do I set PYTHONPATH and other environment variables for Canopy? and if you run a program using Canopy Python from such a session, then there is no change at. Your POST request was accepted by the server (200 OK) but since no login information was posted, the body will most likely tell you something like "login incorrect, please try again". For this I am making use of python and its module requests. Web Servers embedding Python. Its goal is to make CLI interaction with web services as human-friendly as possible. A secure and convenient way for people to log into your app or website using Facebook. As said above, you should send values of all fields of form. Basically for the common use of having one Flask application all you have to do is to create your Flask application, load the configuration of choice and then create the Session object by passing it the application. To access cookies of this session simply use. They are extracted from open source Python projects. Python requests. Designing a RESTful API with Python and Flask would create a session for the logged in user to continue working, with the session id stored in a cookie in the. Python(x,y) is a free scientific and engineering development software for numerical computations, data analysis and data visualization based on Python programming language, Qt graphical user interfaces and Spyder interactive scientific development environment. Like Flask, Flask-Ask provides context locals that spare you from having to add these as extra parameters to your functions. After calling this, we have the file data in a Python variable of type string. python用requests库给https发请求报ssl异常,请大神帮忙进来看下,谢谢! [问题点数:40分,结帖人l122010953]. Brief: This guide shows you how to set up Python environment on Linux and other Unix-like systems. Requests will allow you to send HTTP/1. cache config option. Forrester notes that customers like Oracle databases’ capability to support many workloads including OLTP, IoT, microservices, and AI/ML. The value of this. Although Python is not my primary language, I was intrigued by how simple it was to write the script using requests. Next, we create another page called "demo_session2. This article is the fourth in my series on RESTful APIs. Python includes a built-in HTTP client, urllib2, but its interface is clunky and hard to use. so later we will save the session user who has successfully logged in. 6 was released on November 10, 2013. A great frustration in my web scraping journey has been finding a page tucked away behind a login. What is HTTP? HTTP is a set of protocols designed to enable communication between clients and servers. Effortless File Transfers Over a Network. This output screenshot shows the login form interface. The following are code examples for showing how to use requests_oauthlib. One such examples is to execute a batch of HTTP requests in parallel, which I will explore in this post. You can process information gathered by an HTML form and use ASP code to make decisions based off this information to create dynamic web pages. Connector/Python can use a pure Python interface to MySQL, or a C Extension that uses the MySQL C client library. Fortunately, Python's object-oriented features, combined with the design of the SGMLParser class, provide a means of customising it fairly easily. After a login, these lines of code above simply extract the information from the page to show that the login was successful. Besides, all the cool kids are doing it. x, and in particular Python 3. ASP Intro ASP Syntax ASP Variables ASP Procedures ASP Conditionals ASP Looping ASP Forms ASP Cookies ASP Session ASP Application ASP #include ASP Global. All main parts of the OAuth 2. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: